Error Note Chronicles: Multiple Errors

Posted on 3/21/2023

When more than one error occurs, a note can be extraordinarily special.

Paper Money Guaranty® (PMG®) is the world’s leading authority on banknote errors, a popular segment of numismatics. In Error Note Chronicles, we take an in-depth look at different errors. This month’s topic is Multiple Errors.

Multiple Errors occur when a note has more than one error. For instance, this 1957B $1 Silver Certificate has both a Stuck Digit Error (affecting the last digit of the left serial number) and a Mismatched Serial Number Error (in which the two serial numbers do not match). This particular note is being offered in a Heritage Auctions sale being held May 3-5, 2023.

1957B $1 Silver Certificate with a Double Error (Mismatched Serial Number and Stuck Digit Error) graded PMG 66 Gem Uncirculated EPQ
Click images to enlarge.

Multiple Errors can be valuable because of how unusual they are among error notes. For instance, this 1988 $1 Federal Reserve Note (Kansas City) has both a Gutter Fold Error (which affected the printings on the front of the note, including the district seal at left) and a Wet Ink Transfer Error (seen in the ghostly, slightly askew green ink on the back that was transferred from another note). This particular note realized $1,680 in a May 2022 Heritage Auctions sale.

1988 $1 Federal Reserve Note (Kansas City) with Multiple Errors (Gutter Fold Error and Wet Ink Transfer) graded PMG 64 Choice Uncirculated EPQ
Click images to enlarge.

Multiple Errors can also occur on world notes, such as this China / People's Republic 1980 2 Jiao that has both an Obstructed Printing Error and a Printed Fold Error.

China / People's Republic 1980 2 Jiao with Multiple Errors (Obstructed Printing and Printed Fold Errors) graded PMG 65 Gem Uncirculated EPQ
Click images to enlarge.

PMG, an independent member of the Certified Collectibles Group® (CCG®), has certified many exciting error notes, including the famous “Del Monte” error note that realized $396,000 in a January 2021 sale.

Collectors and dealers with error notes can submit them to PMG for certification under an applicable grading tier with “error” or the specific error noted under the Variety/Pedigree column on the submission form. There is no additional fee for this service.

For more information about submitting to PMG, visit

Other Error Note Chronicles columns:

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